這已經是最趨近於真實海盜船的情境了，舊式龍骨古木打造，沈船又再度被打撈起，歷經冒險與患難，據說鴨靈號The Duk Ling是最後一艘還在航行的Chinese Junk。雨滴落在上薄漆的古木甲板上，庶務老伯賣力順著雨逕拖乾甲板上的水，似乎深怕稀落的乘客在搖晃的船上滑倒骨折後，便得像漫漫遠洋海上罹患scurvy(壞血病)的水手一樣，咬牙隱忍肌肉痠痛等待過見陸後仰賴大夫上船治療 –我並無意指它船速很慢，事實上船速4-7.5 knots最適合雨中expedition。
人說香港是一個充滿商業氛圍的海港，然這樣的環境下，數十載的國際貿易歷史中，藝術品與珍奇卻得以因交易而倖存。位於中環碼頭的pier 8的香港海事博物館就是愛海洋藝術者慷慨割愛的真實見證處 ! 館內展品不乏各國人士私人收藏之捐贈與租借品，世界各地愛好者願意割愛於投入香港社會海洋文化教育，實則讓人澎湃，值得海島台灣多學習。
博物館的地理位置幾乎是每艘船甫入港，最先映入視野的建築，然而鮮少人會注意到它，因目光總為它身後巨型的香港摩天輪給搶去了。沿著碼頭岸走上一把迴旋梯，博物館的入口就位於第二樓層的位置，以空橋與Star Ferry Pier緊連相繫。 除常設性近海沙船與遠洋福船模型工藝細緻，館內的珍藏品中特殊船型有15世紀的韓國朝鮮龜船、及日本奈良時期及前平安時期的遣唐船。
遣唐船在中日外交史上是一個關鍵要角，當時唐朝為亞洲海上霸主，接受諸方朝貢，日本是重要朝貢國常派大使赴唐，也派留學生至唐「取經」，船的造型頭尾尖翹，像是象徵當時日本外交風格，溫儒風度中帶有的不可一世之勢。雖熱愛海洋畫，尤其17世紀19世紀那種氣勢軒昂一類，然香港海事博物館最深讓人傾心的是這幅澳門畫家甘長齡的 A Grey Day in the Harbour, Hong Kong。畫中1950年代香港海港多種類型的船隻，拖網漁船(Fishing trawler)、典型中國帆船與西洋蒸汽船深刻刻畫出香港當時身為國際貿易興盛的港埠。在這樣的時代背景中，仍可以看見一般鄉人的海上活動，靈動活潑。
<珍貴的 grandmama's photo scrapbook等級- 香港海軍中的女性前輩照>
香港海事博物館的空間設計也讓人鍾心，二樓展區的落地玻璃觀景台像是一個小甲板，坐在甲板木板長凳上看著奢華渡輪、遊艇與昨日搭乘的鴨靈號相間航行，瞬間領悟到某種時空交錯的不協調美感就是香港海港的魅力，這是它的閱歷、它的臉譜、它始終如一的個性; 在落地窗與畫布間，我又看到甘長齡，我彷彿成了他畫中漁船上的那只小魚夫，瞬間發現大海所內涵的如此豐富的人類歷史，雖人類如此渺小，卻能在此三維空間看到過往與現代共存的四維空間，不是一種奇蹟，是什麼? 維多利亞港來去的船隻，上面載滿了遊客，調皮地想像著乘載如擠沙丁魚般數量的遊客的高級渡輪，在別的時空背景下也許是滿載的逃難船，不禁油生趣味。如，我的遊記是一篇入寶山記，然，在上帝眼裡寶山卻只是滄海一粟。
– a gem on the pier <April,2017>
以及細緻的加賀料理(如 Kaga-ryori 治布煮)與日本菓子，直至今日前田家族所畫的心血
In the stride of Globalization, acculturation and Enculturation has become non unfamiliar,
but actually a necessity, a social phenomenon that is slowly penetrating the present state of social communication structure, in terms of business communication, social education, nonetheless-
the family relationship. In this film, The Joy Luck Club, based on the novel by Amy Tan.
The author uses her personal experience as the keel of the storyline, giving life to the characters and plot of the scene, vividly interpreting the lives of a pioneer generation of Chinese immigrants and their second generation. Here their second generations, children that have never had a glance of their home China, but nourished with American milk and school books after their birth, have no sense of Chinese culture. Thus after their detachment from the mother bodies umbilical cord, the only infiltration of cultural blood in their heritage, comes only from their mom. Although these Chinese Asian American girls conflict with their mothers up-bring, even after they have matured as mothers of their own children, this continuous strangle of conflict still remains.... Culture itself, is a continuous development and state of learning, understanding the culture
schema will take a lifelong learning process. A process that never stops, till the day we depart from this world. And till that day, the world will keep coming to us, therefore there is no stopping in cultural learning and acculturation.
This novel written in 1989, following the movie in 1993, was a phenomenon, since it was an
era of immigration, and immigration was only beginning to prosper due to the reviving economics of the United States. But until today, after, with evidence to Amy Chou’s “Battle Hymn of
The Tiger Mom” (published in 2011), a confession of Chua, as an autobiographic way of illustrating her experiences and efforts of applying what she describes as a traditional, strict “Chinese” upbringing educating her own girls. I enjoyed Amy Chou's novel very much, due to it's bald honesty and truthfulness,and how she vividly displays her mind-set, while some still traditional Chinese parents, feel guilt of confessing it.
In the joy luck club, the plot focuses on 4 sets of family, each of the Chinese mothers come from a tragic past in China. Suyuan Wu a refugee from the Japanese invasion in China, is forced to leave behind her twin babies in China, after escaping to the USA, she lives in uncertainty of unknowing the babies dealth or well-being. Lindo Jong, a women that has married at an young age to an unmature man, by the words of a matchmaker, determined to escape this unfortunate situation, managed a clever plan releasing herself from this marriage, later fleddingto America. Ying-Ying, one of the four women, marries a charismatic man named Lin Xiao at an young age, just to find out her husband is revealed to be a womanizer and has an abusive characteristic. In an extreme mental state, she accidentally drown her baby, and is heart-broken. In anguish she leaves the country later marrying another man in America. These 4 women all finding hope in this new destination, leaving their past behind. Opening the psychological effects of the a person’s Johari window, we learned that when a person finds hope in a whole new country or environment. Entering a new country makes the self- healing process begin, allowing those hidden parts and Open parts rearrange. Thus later, these four women created “the Joy Luck Club ”, which is a act of triumph and rejoice, celebrating their bondage of rebirth in this new country.
We see these four independent women, and their daughters going through the process of acculturation and enculturation, facing conflict in Values and attitudes . As Jandt,F.E (2004) has said, No immigration, as long as livelihood needs are to be met in a new country, can escape acculturation.
“Acculturation has four dimensions: integration, Separation, assimilation and deculturation.
When a minority moves into a majority culture, he or she will chose one of these modes either consciously or subconsciously” Though the movie has not illustrated too much personal inner-depth-voices of the mother’s philosophy and life reflections. In the novel, Lindo confesses of regret over losing some of her Chinese identity by living so long in America (she is treated like a tourist on a visit to China), as evidence to integration ; however, she expresses concern that Waverly's American upbringing has formed a barrier between them, destruction the mother-daughter relationship. Revealing how an Integration and assimilation acculturation can conflict in communication.
These mother bring forth their old fashion values from China, yet their daughters, enculturated
in the western surroundings, possess American souls and mindsets inside. Thus the conflict in communication cannot be avoided, simulating the mode of intercultural communication.
Since culture is a code we learn and share, and learning and sharing requires communication, Alfred G Smith (1966) says, this conflict is inevitable for relationship development in intimate family relationships.
There are several traces in the movie, where we can see the mother’s evidence of integration in forming acculturation, such as one scene where
An-Mei Hsu questions her daughter about buying grocery:
An-Mei: Who’s coming to dinner?
Daughter (Rose): well, Ted is coming over, we’re having sort of a meeting…
An-Mei Hsu: meeting? Flour, egg, bitter sweet Hersey bar, Skippy chunky,
Sounds like Chocolate peanut butter pie!
An-Mei is integrated in western logic of cuisines, and knows that a chocolate peanut butter pie is not linked to a meeting taboo dish, but something more..
Although acculturation increases the interconnectedness of cultures, differences are sources of potential problems (Chaney L.H, Martin ,2007) Harvey (1985) said that Family and personal issues can be disruptive to acculturation. In the Joy Luck Club however, we can see the opposite, how acculturation affects and disrupts the mother-daughter relationship. Since the childhood of their daughters, Suyuan Wu and Lindo Jong, though good friend, compete on their daughters behalf, turningJune and Waverly into childhood rivals, the 2 women each consider their daughter June (daughter of Suyan Wu) & Waverly (Daughter of Lindo) as being more superior than the other in their talents, Therefore, dominantly forcing traditional, strict child-rearing on their daughters.
But unlike traditional Chinese children who are obedient in everything the parents say. June who decides not to take up piano playing anymore after an embarrassing recital scene, is forced by her mother physically to sit in front of the piano to practice again, leading to her explode of rebel.
Here June expresses her individualistic statement of feeling and choice. We see the western individualism spirit in her words of rebel, as oppose to her mother’s traditional collectivism notion, that “only an obedient daughter stays under this roof”.
The same situation of how acculturation disrupts the mother-daughter relationship, in terms of education, happens also in Lindo Jong’s household. Her daughter Waverly is a gifted child chess champion.
After a champion quest, Waverly’s photo is featured on the cover of Life magazine. Feeling proud of her daughter, Lindo holds the magazine high upon her chest and tells everyone she meets on the street that, her daughter is the covergirl, Waverly is embarrassed as she walks by her mother’s side. Annoyed at her mother’s action, Waverly angrily fights back, expressing how she doesn’t like her mother using her accomplishments to show off. Her mother assumes her daughter is ashamed of her. They have a fight on the street, where later when Waverly comes home , her mother does not say much and remains silent against her fight in a high-context communication.
There are distinctive cultural differences in the eastern and western component. Western cultures such as Americans mostly communicate in a more low-context dialogue, while Asians especially the Chinese communicate in a high-context communication. Such as a period of silence, not revealing their thoughts, allowing imagination and assumption of the counterpart, thus leaving space for conflict in the process of encoding and decoding messages.
A similar scene of conflict in encoding and decoding messages happens when Waverly has casually promises her mother a trip to the beauty parlor before Waverly’s wedding, while her mother possessing a traditional value of keeping a great extent of respect to a promise made with their mothers, thinks Waverly would remember the trip to the beauty parlor:
Mother(Lindo)(picks up the phone):
Waverly! You at the beauty parlor already?
Waverly: No Ma. I have a headache.
Mother: So you can’t keep promise to your own mother?
So you don’t want to go? …
Her mother encodes the message with her own assumptions, analyzing it in a Chinese logic of value, to value their elders words. While Waverly’s statement of “No Ma, I have a headache” may mean:”So I didn’t remember our date” or “So I’ll be late for the parlor. ” Her mother interprets it into the meaning that her daughter is not going with her, or that she is breaking the promise they made.
There are two plots in the movie, covering the issue of cross-culture marriage. One is the American-Chinese marriage of Waverly and Rich. The dinner scene of Rich coming over to Waverly’s Chinese household for the first time, illustrates the dinning matters between both cultures, differences that if not minded causes impoliteness, such as do not take too much food from the same dish, when everyone has not had their first helping. But Rich does not realize he is conflicting with the cultural invisible rules, and takes an abundant amount for himself. In the western way, it may be a bold way of expressing ”I like this food. ”but it is embarrassing and impolite for Waverly and Waverly’s mother (Lindo). So Lindo sarcastically says to Waverly “He has good appetite”, which is a multilevel message expressed in a high context dialogue, meaning “Rich is healthy, and can eat a lot”(in the Chinese concept), but also ostensibly describing his behavior of helping himself to too much.
Lindo’s Xenophobic characteristic towards Rich, inclination of an Asian parent to do so, can be seen in scenes such as when Waverly confesses how she married a Chinese guy just to please her mother, though later ending in divorce. And in the scene where she shows Lindo the fur coat gift Rich has given to her as a gift. Lindo harshly criticizes the gift, saying how the gift does not fit to be the best for her, reflection how Lindo wants the best for her daughter, but also slight evidence of xenophobicism towards this white son-in-law.
In Rose and Ted’s case, Rose falls in love with Ted, an American that withholds a prestige social status. Rose meets Ted’s parents for the first time, and has a not so friendly conversation with Ted’s mother, she nurses a racism towards Rose when she tells Rose that she will not be accepted by their families status acquaintances, and describes in stereotype towards Rose how “Vietnam was not so popular”.
In comparison of these two mother-in-laws we can see Ted’s mother, an American, being more aggressive and communicating directly in the low-context style. While Lindo, Waverly’s mother, is more implicit towards expressing towards Rich her true feeling (High context communication), and holding the Chinese concept of “Face” does not want to embarrass Rich in front of the table. Leaving Rich unaware of his mother-in-laws true feelings.
Cultural synergy is the future competence of enterprises in terms of expanding, therefore, nourishing a more alert sense to culture, and willingness to adjust one’s cultural schema is inevitable. Learning to analyzing different situations of cultural communication, can later be applied to analyzing organization behaviors. Cultural learning is a not just a scholarly humanistic subject, it's a soft skill competence that can be nourished and applied to Human resource managing.